A Perspective on Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy
Immunotherapy is an open access rapid peer reviewed journal. It is a bimonthly journal. Below we discuss about Allergen immunotherapy Types and side effects.
Autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) is a treatment procedure in which immune cells are extracted from a patient's body, cultivated, and processed to activate them until their cancer resistance is improved, and then the cells are returned to the patient's body. The immune system's cells, antibodies, and organs strive to guard and defend the body against tumour cells as well as bacteria and viruses.
Cell division in any living organism is an integral part of life as the worn out cells have to be replaced by newly generated cells. This process of generating new cells varies between organs and the mechanisms involved are highly complex which include the nature and capability of the underlying stem cells, their environment, metabolism, physical and allied biological factors the organ or tissue is subjected to etc., Aberrant cell division takes place that ends up in a cancer cell and such aberrance may be due to faulty stem cell, abnormal genetic components or any other factor such as radiation or a constant irritation.
Mechanism of action
Cancer cells are formed in our body almost every day but we are not affected by them. This is because they are immediately destroyed by the body's immune system. The immune system is a complex network of cells and organs comprising lymphocytes, macrophages, Dendritic cells, Natural Killer cells (NK Cell), Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL), etc., that work together to defend the body against attacks by "foreign" or "non-self" invaders including cancer cells. Immediately after a cancer cell is recognized, the Lymphocytes and/or the NK cells attack the cancer cell to kill it. When the immune system is weaker then cancer evolves as a disease and starts growing.
Each type of cancer needs a specific combination of treatments aimed at that particular kind of cancer. When the extent of spread of cancer is deep, total removal of the cancer growth by surgery may not be possible. At times, after surgical removal of a part of the cancer, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the remnant portion of cancer. It is widely known that Chemotherapy has profound toxic side effects and has limitations in efficacy.
Now in AIET, specific types of cells mainly the NK cells and T lymphocytes are isolated from the peripheral blood of the cancer patients by proven methods, expanded to 25–30 fold and activated and then re-infused back into the patient’s body. These cells act against the cancer cells effectively and recharge the immune system.
Status of immunotherapy worldwide
Though the concept of this treatment started in the US in 1980s, full-fledged clinical treatments on a routine basis have been in practice in Japan since 1990. Randomized controlled studies in different cancers with significant increase in survival and disease free period have been reported. In India immunotherapy has shown positive results in patients with advanced cancer including acute myeloid leukemia, pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, Breast Cancer and Philadelphia chromosome Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
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Immunotherapy: Open Access
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